Nicola Tesla

How much did you pay last month for your electric bill? If you are in charge of these expenses frequently in your home, you will surely have noticed a considerable increase in the increase in it. This responds, among many things, to the consequences of the war between Russia and Ukraine.

Now, how would you feel if you knew that, for a moment, electricity could be free today? To understand it, it is necessary to know a little piece of the forgotten history of Nikola Tesla, an innovative scientist who is poor, in debt and very obsessed with his failure.



Surely you know how Wi-Fi works, correct? A transmission without the need for cables, which is capable of connecting electronic devices in a specific radius to the Internet. Today, it is the most basic technology that almost every home has.

Now let’s go to 1892, when things were very different. That year, the inventor Nikola Tesla raised a revolutionary idea: the transmission of electrical current without the need for cables or batteries. A completely wireless process. Yes, like Wi-Fi.

To make it possible, he began to raise funds for his landmark project, known as the “Tesla Transformer Coil.” According to the information available, it was expected that this project youporn, in addition to being innovative, would be a great step for humanity, thanks to the possibility of transmitting electrical energy at no cost.



THE WARDENCLYFFE PROJECTThe arrival of the new millennium offered opportunities for Tesla. In the year 1901, in the midst of his steady competition with Guglielmo Marconi, he secured an investment of US$150,000 from J.P. Morgan to build his powerful invention on Long Island, New York.

This groundbreaking invention was expected to quickly and cheaply connect people around the world. In December 1901, Tesla suffered a devastating blow when Marconi, using Tesla’s 17 patents, managed to send a radiotelegraph signal from England to Canada. Although Tesla had more ambitious and promising plans, Marconi’s success captured the attention of investors, and J.P. Morgan refused to provide Tesla with more funding.

As a result, Tesla’s tower became a useless structure that finally collapsed in 1917. Tesla, who believed that his project could have changed the world forever, could not help but blame a “weak, blind, and doubtful world” for not rooting for him in his loss, which was arguably the biggest of his career.

If Tesla’s invention had come to fruition, not only would the middle class have saved money every month, but it would have significantly improved the lives of those who lack access to electricity for economic reasons, especially in developing countries.

However, we live in a capitalist society where ideas that do not generate profit are not welcome. Therefore, Tesla can be remembered as the man who could have revolutionized the conception of energy, but he was not allowed to do so due to the limitations of the economic system.



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The experiment above demonstrated the viability of nuclear fusion as a low-cost and sustainable alternative energy option.

With each passing day, global warming is getting worse every day. However, fossil fuels remain the main source of energy and, thanks to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, several European countries even went back to using coal, despite various agreements to eradicate emissions by 2030.

However, there is a really clean and sustainable alternative: nuclear fusion. This consists of a reaction in which two nuclei of light atoms come together to form a much heavier one. This releases a large amount of energy that can be used.

The United States Department of Energy announced that a group of scientists managed to generate energy through this method. The milestone, as explained by Robert Fedosejevs, professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Alberta (Canada), was that a balance was reached, achieving more energy produced than needed.


Nuclear fusion has been the subject of study for several decades with the intent of developing an inexhaustible, carbon-free source of energy, without the nuclear waste associated with conventional nuclear reactors. And the experiment above demonstrated the viability of nuclear fusion as a low-cost and sustainable alternative energy option xxx porno.

Now, you’re probably wondering, how does nuclear fusion work? Scientists did not invent them, but these types of reactions occur naturally and are what power the sun because the intense heat and pressure exerted by gravity allows atoms to fuse together.

There is a really clean and sustainable alternative: nuclear fusion

However, the process is difficult to replicate. Scientists have been trying to do this for decades. Currently, experiments are focused on fusing isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium; since this combination can release a lot of energy and also requires less heat.

One of the ways nuclear fusion can be recreated is in a donut-shaped vacuum chamber, which works with powerful magnets to turn the fuel into superheated plasma (between 150 million and 300 million degrees Celsius). to allow the process.

However, one of the most innovative techniques is that of the Livermore laboratory. In their case, the researchers fire a 192-beam laser at a small capsule filled with deuterium and tritium fuel. In this way, up to 70% of the energy fired at the target can be achieved.



Although still in development, nuclear fusion could become a virtually unlimited fuel. However, to do this, a way must be found to make it commercially viable.

One of the advantages of nuclear fusion is that the process does not produce radioactive waste that nuclear fission does. Likewise, the materials necessary to achieve it can mostly be found in the sea, except for tritium, which, although more expensive, can also be manufactured synthetically.


And the most encouraging part is that it would take “little” material to make it work. For example, the deuterium in a glass of water, with a little tritium added, could power a house for a year.

For now, there are several projects to further develop this technology in the United States, the United Kingdom and Europe. In fact, France is home to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, in which thirty-five countries collaborate, including the main members China, the United States, the European Union, Russia, India, Japan and South Korea.



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Energy Production: Where Does It Come From And How Is It Produced?


Energy refers to the ability to work. It exists in different forms, including electrical, potential energy, light, kinetic energy, and heat. Sources of energy are classified into non-renewable and renewable energy.


Energy:  How Is It Produced?


Nuclear Energy

Water is heated in nuclear power plants to produce steam. The produced steam is then used to spin turbines and generate electricity. Power plants use the heated water using the heat produced during nuclear fission. Energy is released upon the split of the atoms produced by nuclear fission.
Renewable Energy Sources

Sources of renewable energy include natural processes that allow for constant replenishment. They include wind, biofuels, hydrogen, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and porno ocean.

Solar Energy

The earth’s energy primary energy source is the sun. Sunshine is always clean and renewable. It is a sustainable energy source and never runs out. Maintaining energy from the sun is always easy, given that the sun shines every day. Solar energy experts use solar Photovoltaic cells to convert solar energy into electricity. Energy from the sun can be used directly or stored in batteries.

Wind Energy

Wind power is freely and abundantly available. It is also friendly to our surroundings. The power from the wind can be used to turn the shafts to which a windmill is attached, generating energy. Electricity is usually generated as the shaft moves through a generator or pump.


Sunshine produces biomass through photosynthesis. Then the biomass passes through cycles meant to produce different forms of energy. For instance, animal fodder produces dung, which can be converted into agricultural waste used for cooking. Biomass is a reliable energy source that accounts for most of the fuel used in rural areas. Most people use it for heating and household cooking. Other forms in which biomass is used for household heating include dried dung, charcoal, wood, and agricultural waste.


The ocean tides and flowing rivers can be reliable sources of energy. Water covers the largest part of the universe, so it can be a reliable energy source. While currently under-utilized, ocean tides and flowing rivers and streams can produce a lot of energy. Constructing a barrage across an estuary can help capture tidal water, which can be used to turn hydro-turbine used for energy production. Placing a floating device on the surface of water or attaching it to the ocean’s floor can help capture tides and waves. These tides and waves can produce energy used to turn turbines in a power plant.

Geothermal Energy

There exists so much heat in the earth’s crust. Geothermal plants convert this heat into electricity. In some cases, it can be used for direct heating. Geothermal power is eco-friendly and severe climatic conditions such as winter can’t affect it. That said, geothermal is a more reliable energy source than solar energy and hydropower.

Non-Renewable Energy

Non-renewable energy sources include coal, natural gas, and oil. They are also known as fossil fuels and are obtained from the remains of animals and plants that died thousands of years ago. These are the world’s top sources of energy. Though widely used, fossil fuels cause significant harm to the environment in the form of pollution.

Energy comes from different sources, and it is produced using different technologies. Main energy sources are categorized into renewable, non-renewable, and nuclear energy.


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Forging international partnerships with technology

It is a commonplace that the Internet has the potential to create a global classroom in which students and teachers from different countries work together to enhance their understandings.  This project explores how a group of students and teachers at the Isidore Newman School in New Orleans worked with their counterparts in India to come to a better understanding of modern day India and colonial legacy that modern India has inherited.
The project was led by Priscilla Jesunathadas, a graduate of Isidore Newman.  Jonah Peretti, then chair of the computer department at Newman, coordinated the project at the school, and Martin Avegno, then a tenth grade student at Newman, provided programming assistance.  Arunkumar Vora, a retired journalist, coordinated the project in India, and Janhavi Vinayak, then a thirteen year-old student in Panchagani, served as the project’s primary field researcher in India.
While such a collaborative project might be done via the phone or regular mail, e-mail makes such collaborative projects much more viable.  One may obtain free e-mail accounts from a number of web sites including or  While e-mail certainly fosters the exchange of information between the parties abroad and the parties in the States, the ability to carry out research on the Internet and then to publish the results on one’s collaborative work online bolsters such international projects immensely.
The first step in carrying out an international project is to see what the content of the project might be.  Simply working with others abroad for the sake of working with others abroad might not carry one very far.  In this project, the content focus was on Britain’s rule of India during the so-called Raj, modern India after independence, and how colonial rule of India may have impacted modern India.To help one establish contacts with educators abroad, one invaluable source is ePALS located at  Epals provides contact information for educators in different countries who are interested in fostering educational exchanges via e-mail and the Internet.  Contacts abroad may conveniently be searched for by any combination of city, country, grade level, and language.  Using personal contacts within the school or area community can be another good means of making contact with teachers and students abroad. A good way to start the communication is to work out the scope of any collaboration and a timeline for the various steps in the collaborative endeavor.  Responsibilities for carrying out these steps might be divided in a number of ways between participants in the United States and those abroad.  In creating a historical web site, maps, timelines, historical introductions, in-depth essays, photographs, videos, poems, short stories, multi-media slide shows, and interviews might all be part of the project.
The featured collaboration between Isidore Newman and their Indian colleagues, for instance, includes stories, poems, slide shows, interviews, essays, and historical overviews, as well as an introduction to the project and the project’s participants.  The web site arising from that collaboration is located  The site was recognized for its excellence by ThinkQuest and may serve as a model for how one might organize information collected in a collaborative international project.
To give the reader a general sense of India’s history, the site provides an introduction to India’s history over the past 200 years.  The site then includes a number of brief historical essays on various aspects of Indian history, the bulk of these focusing on the road to independence from Britain and the means by which Britain ruled its colonies, particularly India.  The site also includes rather more extensive essays on Indian history and culture.  One deals with language, one with the independence and partition of India, and one with Gandhi himself.
To give the reader a visual sense of India’s marvels, the site contains a number of slide shows.   These slides shows included one on British Influence, one on City Life, one on Hindu Architecture, one on Scenery & People, and one on Village Life. To further immerse one in Indian culture, the site contains a festivals section that provides a sort of anthropological introduction to the role of festivals, and then discusses particular important Indian festivals one by one.
Much of the web site’s merit — and the merit of the collaboration — lies in the personal nature of the material collected.  The stories and poems, for instance, are “based on personal experiences of the effects of British rule on Indian culture.”  Similarly, the interviews document individual’s experiences with historical phenomena.  The interview section at present contains seven interviews, each revolving around the question, what does it feel like to live in post-colonial India?  Each interview is accompanied by the interviewee’s name, age, occupation, and the place the interview took place and pictures of the interviewer with the interviewee.One of the most interesting aspects of the web site on India is its openness to input from others outside the original collaborative enterprise.  Visitors to the web site are invited to contribute their own stories, poems, essays, or pictures to the web site.  Through the use of message boards, visitors are also invited to comment on any stories, poems, essays, and pictures already posted on the porno italiani web site.
The featured web site on India may serve as a model for how others might carry out an international partnership with technology.  The site provides a good range of the types of materials that may be exchanged and assembled in such a partnership and gives some idea of how the Internet might be used to foster that exchange and assembly process.  Perhaps the most admirable feature of the featured web site — and one that really deserves to be emulated in other collaborative enterprises — is its openness to contributions from others.  In order to make one’s own collaborative endeavors more dynamic, one might seriously consider allowing others not directly involved in the original project to become involved by contributing their ideas, poems, stories, experiences, pictures, audio clips, video clips,  … via e-mail or a discussion board.


CriticalControl: serving the information management needs of Energy

Petroleum Pipeline Management Applications

Petroleum pipeline transport companies fight battles every day. Running the gauntlet between the refineries that produce the products and the tank terminals where customers expect to receive the product exactly when it is promised. Throw in terrain that by its varying peaks, valleys, water crossings, passages under highly populated areas or environmentally sensitive zones, and the pipeline transport business proves itself a marvel of intricate scheduling, fluid dynamics, co-operation on a very large scale and plain hard work. Dealing with the day-to-day challenges of making accurate, timely deliveries to customers under conditions that can change as fast as the spot price of oil or gas while keeping operations within strict governmental regulatory controls means only the most well-managed companies thrive in the industry. CriticalControl focuses on the batch scheduling and real-time leak detection aspects of petroleum pipeline transportation management. With a highly integrated suite of products delivered to customers by a team of experienced pipeline hydraulics specialists, CriticalControl is a recognized leader in the select industry of pipeline applications software suppliers.

Products and Services that help Petroleum Companies manage their pipelines:

• PipeWorks LeakWarn, Scheduler, Trainer
• LeakWarn Classic
• Simone Gas Applications

PipeWorks is an integrated suite of software tools that assists petroleum companies in managing a pipeline system. PipeWorks is made up of a number of modular applications that perform real-time modeling, look-ahead modeling, and training simulation. It also includes a complete set of utilities and tools that allow effective use of PipeWorks including graphical user interface, object oriented database management system and a number of ancillary tools and utilities.

The PipeWorks system has been designed to include a complete selection of pipeline operation applications. Some applications exist in the current PipeWorks offering while others will be added in the future.

  • Real-time Transient Model
  • Training Simulator
  • Look-Ahead Model
  • Predictive Model
  • Pipeline Integrity Monitor
  • Instrument Analysis
  • Batch Tracking
  • Batch Scheduling
  • Composition Tracking
  • Scraper Tracking

PipeWorks incorporates standard third party software for its database and uses JAVA for the user interface. This ensures ease of interfacing and also ensures that the product will stay current with industry standards.

The common platform, consisting of the database, GUI and application interfaces means that users pay only for the added functionality once. Add additional functionality without rebuilding or replicate databases. The system is easier to maintain since data is entered only once into a common database. This architecture also allows for modules to interact, reducing the individual complexity but allowing for sophisticated functionality. For example, the scheduler can call on the pipeline model to check for hydraulic violations of a particular schedule without the need to incorporate a full hydraulic model into the Scheduler.

Solutions that Automate Critical Information

Document & Records Management

All energy companies have at least one thing in common: each generate an enormous volume of information. The burden of the Information Revolution is information management. Organizations have no trouble creating or acquiring information. The difficulty comes in deciding what information is important enough to keep, how to find it when others want access to it and for how long to keep it.
Document and Records Management is the science of information management. Organizations face increasing issues from the growing store of accumulating information, such as:

Storage Costs – needless information retained in the organization’s computing and paper-based information systems costs money, either in extra computers or in real estate lease charges. Prudent destruction of excess information directly reduces operating costs
Accurate Retention and Retrieval – organizations must keep relevant information for long periods. The difficulty becomes how to retain it in an organized, structured fashion and how future users can find it and retrieve it. An organized document and records management strategy ensures information can be retrieved accurately and easily regardless of length of time in storage.
Privacy – organizations now face privacy guidelines that govern the retention of private individuals’ information. Organizations now bear the burden of proof that private individuals’ information is retained only as long as legal requirements permit, and accessible or shared only in keeping with the wishes of each private individual.
Competent organizations employ a structured approach to document and records management, to manage the company’s information and ensure minimum risk from uncontrolled access or distribution of information. Document and Records Management Systems are designed to automate information and put the controls in place to allow for easy retrieval under proper distribution control.

Document Management Systems

Document management systems are purpose-built software systems that facilitate paper input into electronic format (whenever that step is necessary), then create structured, central electronic document repositories to find, share and store documents in a controlled, traceable fashion. Document management systems connect to industrial-grade paper scanners, so that large volumes of paper documents can be put into the system electronically. Using complex software known as CRS (Character Recognition Software), document management systems convert scanned written information into individual characters, allowing unstructured content to be treated like native digital text.
When is a Document a Record?
Most of us use the terms “documents” and “records” interchangeably. However, in the science of document and records management, the two are very distinct.

Documents versus Records

Documents comprise the majority of an organization’s information sources. Documents can range from a simple memo or e-mail containing some useful information, to multiple volumes of exhaustive material on a related field or subject. The information in Documents can be vital to retain for long periods, or short-term in nature and relatively inconsequential. Documents can be legally binding contracts between parties or routine notifications passing between groups or individuals. In short, the term “Documents” is a general title encompassing arguably all forms of visual information. However, all Documents are not Records.

Documents become Records once some information in the document is designated to be retained in an official capacity. Within all organizations, only a subset of all Documentation held by the group becomes classified as Records. For example, contracts for drilling leases; the name/address/telephone number of an individual on the pipeline right-of-way; the custody transfer total between two organizations on a specific date, all are vital pieces of information that must be retained exactly, to protect the integrity of the information. Document Management Systems focus on making all content available in electronic form. Records Management Systems address the tracking and retention of official information.

Records Management Systems

Records Management Systems allow users to apply structured rules to the storage and retention of information. Records Management Systems usually do not shape or alter documents, as those activities are ably handled by document management systems. Records Management Systems act as information accountants, establishing formal control over access, distribution, retention and ultimately destruction of any information designated as a record under the control of a records management system. A complete corporate document and content management solution would include both a document management system and a records management system.
Many very large companies today sell asset management software. Why would any Energy customer choose instead to work with CriticalControl, admittedly not the largest asset management company in the industry?

CriticalControl saw that most of the big asset management companies have developed their products around a classical manufacturing industry model, where an asset is purchased new, installed in a specific location, operated and maintained over its lifetime and then retired when the last drop of usefulness has been rung out of it. That approach may work very well for assets that stay in one place, like in a car manufacturing plant. But CriticalControl knows that the upstream sector moves their materials very frequently, with drilling rigs traveling literally around the country, and wells being rotated in and out of production. Such materials movements make it easy to lose track of a portion of a company’s invested capital. In a company with 1,000 oil wells, materials can become misplaced before their useful life really has come to an end, leading companies to buy new replacements before it is actually necessary.

In the upstream oil and gas materials management industry, customers choose CriticalControl because we specialize in the management of materials for the upstream oil and gas industry.

Document & Records Management Consulting

The Electronic Revolution has accomplished many major milestones since the introduction of computing. Two cornerstone events stand out:

Computers small enough to put one at every person’s fingertips, typing their own documents, managing their own spreadsheets and storing their own data.
Connecting computers together over networks, so that information can be shared easily between users.
Now that we have computing power available to everyone who wants it and networks that will carry our information around the world in an instant, the difficulty users face is the amount of data we handle and how to manage it effectively. More and more, the combination of all people creating their own documents and being able to send them to anyone anywhere for their input means more documents are being shared more widely than was ever possible before. This expanding phenomenon is raising issues of version control, document storage, accidental disclosure of sensitive information and a variety of other issues that were not so easily accomplished in the pre-electronic world. The science that has emerged to address these issues is known as “Document and Records Management.” Evolutionary steps taking place now address moving from just creating documents and e-mailing them around, to implementing managed document sharing methodologies, built within formal Document and Records Management Systems. CriticalControl is an expert at designing, procuring, implementing and deploying document and records management systems for our customers.

CriticalControl is not a manufacturer of document and record management systems. CriticalControl is a document and records management systems integration organization, with a large consulting staff who work with customers on their specific porno gratis document and records management needs, then design and deliver complete document and records management solutions tailor-made to meet each customer’s specific requirements.

CriticalControl accomplishes these projects with the help of our partners, each an accomplished and successful document and records management industry member in their own right:

Power plant size

Large (50 to 500 MW for instance):
• Commonly, oil is burnt to generate high pressure steam in a steam boiler. Power generator is steam turbine driven.
• It is mandatory to burn only very heavy fuel or residue, to avoid wasting money with unnecessary increase of operating costs.
Medium (3 to 30 MW for instance):
• Electricity generator may be driven by steam turbine or diesel engine.
• Once again, steam turbine means burning very heavy fuel-oil to avoid unnecessary waste in plant operating budget.
Diesel engine generator drive:
• Very often engine manufacturer has designed diesel engine to accept fuel specification up to bunker C.
• To reduce operating cost, the heaviest fuel oil acceptable to engine manufacturer must be supplied.

Fuel oil heating value

When generating thermal electricity, only recovered kilocalories or BTU are important: the additional qualities of the fuel oil are not improving the produced KWH quality. In other words, burning LPG , gas oil , domestic fuel or any oil product that could be better used, means burning its better properties… and wasting the differential part between thermal content value and total real cost .

Imported fuel

If fuel was available at power plant fence door, it may be assumed every plant manager would decide buying the cheapest heaviest fuel offered.

Unfortunately usually fuel is imported from overseas and sea tanker tranported .

Here start transport limitations, whatever their name:

Pour point, freezing point, paraffins content.
High viscosity ( Redwood, Saybolt, furol, engler, ..) absolute or kinematic, centipoises or centistokes.
Each fuel has its own specific properties, but as first estimation:

Light fuel, such FO 180, is usually easy to transport
Heavy fuel, such FO 380, is usually difficult and may be impossible to transport
Extra heavy fuel , such pitch, is not intended to be transported
Burned fuel

Thermal power plant usually burns fuel in a steam boiler to generate high pressure steam for the alternator steam turbine. Any fuel can be supplied to the boiler burners, provided the required viscosity is respected.

Typical example . Economical Feasibility

An excellent image of distillates and fuel prices correction with properties and specially viscosity is the spot price in various harbours where they are exported. In june 2003 for instance, an average range is:

Heavy fuel FO380 153 US $/T
Heavy fuel FO180 160 US $/T
GO cut MDO 240 US $/T
For the example , following is assumed:
Depending on imported heavy fuel characteristics, transport of FO180 is possible
but transport of FO380 not possible.
Power plant FO consumption: 400 000 T/Y

As shown on the simplified flow scheme hereafter, it is possible to import a fuel at 160 US $/T
and burn a transformed fuel costing only 153 US $/T:
Positif result # 400 000 T/Y * 7 $/T = 2.8 MM $/Y

A simple skid mounted distillation unit is necessary to achieve the gas-oil separation from the imported fuel.( mini-refinery type fractionation unit).

Pay-out time # 3 years